The first mention of the suanpan in print, (Chinese abacus) which was widely used until the invention of the modern calculator. ^{1}

639 CE

Indian mathematician Brahmagupta was the first to describe the modern place-value numeral system.

820 CE

Persian mathematician, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, described the rudiments of modern algebra.

850 CE

Arab mathematician Al-Kindi (Alkindus), was a pioneer of cryptography. He gave the first known recorded explanation of cryptanalysis in A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. ^{2}

1000 CE

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the Planisphere an early analog computer.