The first mention of the suanpan in print, (Chinese abacus) which was widely used until the invention of the modern calculator. 1
Indian mathematician Brahmagupta was the first to describe the modern place-value numeral system.
Persian mathematician, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, described the rudiments of modern algebra.
Arab mathematician Al-Kindi (Alkindus), was a pioneer of cryptography. He gave the first known recorded explanation of cryptanalysis in A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. 2
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the Planisphere an early analog computer.