20th Century: 1967

Development of programming language Pascal begun, continued in Switzerland from 1968 to 1971.

The floppy disk is invented at IBM by David Noble.

Ralph Baer created “Chase”, the first video game that was capable of being played on a television.

GPS becomes available for commercial use.

The LOGO programming language is developed and is later known as “turtle graphics,” a simplified interface useful for teaching children computers.

Jan. 27, 1967: All three astronauts for NASA’s Apollo 1 mission suffocate from smoke inhalation in a cabin fire during a launch pad test.

April 5, 1967: A review board delivers a damning report to NASA Administrator James Webb about problem areas in the Apollo spacecraft. The recommended modifications are completed by Oct. 9, 1968.

April 23, 1967: Soyuz 1 launches but the surface of a myriad of problems. The solar panels do not unfold, there are stability problems and the parachute fails to open on descent causing the death of Soviet cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov.

On November 9, 1967, Apollo 4, the first test flight of the Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle, was launched from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39. This was an unmanned test flight intended to prove that the complex Saturn V rocket could perform its requirements. All three stages separated successfully and their engines performed as planned. The third stage also restarted in orbit, which was a requirement for lunar missions. At the end of the flight, the unmanned Apollo spacecraft reentered and proved that it could survive the intense heat generated during a high-speed return from the moon.

Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle

The first broadcast of The Carol Burnett Show, The Prisoner, The Flying Nun, Speed Racer, The Phil Donahue Show, and Ambassador Magma; Adverts: Birds Eye’s Captain Birdseye and Beanz Meanz Heinz; PAL and SECAM color standards introduced in Europe, with BBC2 making their first color broadcasts.

1967 Stuff:

Jimi Hendrix Live in Monterey

Protests Galore!

Feature Presentation: Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women (Soviet Film – English dub)

 

 

20th Century: 1966

Jan. 14, 1966: The Soviet Union’s chief designer, Sergei Korolev, dies from complications stemming from routine surgery, leaving the Soviet space program without its most influential leader of the preceding 20 years.

Feb. 3, 1966: The unmanned Soviet spacecraft Luna 9 makes the first soft landing on the Moon.

ARPANET planning starts. In February 1966, Bob Taylor successfully lobbied ARPA’s Director Charles M. Herzfeld to fund a network project. Herzfeld redirected funds in the amount of one million dollars from a ballistic missile defense program to Taylor’s budget. Taylor hired Larry Roberts as a program manager in the ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office in January 1967 to work on the ARPANET.

March 1, 1966: The Soviet Union’s Venera 3 probe becomes the first spacecraft to land on the planet Venus, but its communications system failed before data could be returned.

March 16, 1966: Gemini 8 launches on a Titan 2 rocket and later docks with a previously launched Agena rocket — the first docking between two orbiting spacecraft.

The Agena Target Docking Vehicle seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Gemini adapter of the Agena is approximately two feet from the nose of the spacecraft (lower left). Crewmen for the Gemini-8 mission were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot. – NASA / Public domain

April 3, 1966: The Soviet Luna 10 space probe enters lunar orbit, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.

June 2, 1966: Surveyor 1, a lunar lander, performs the first successful U.S. soft landing on the Moon.

US President Lyndon Johnson signed the Freedom of Information Act into law on July 4, 1966. Freedom of information laws allows access by the general public to data held by national governments. The emergence of freedom of information legislation was a response to increasing dissatisfaction with the secrecy surrounding government policy development and decision making. They establish a “right-to-know” legal process by which requests may be made for government-held information, to be received freely or at minimal cost, barring standard exceptions. Also, variously referred to as open records, or sunshine laws (in the United States), governments are typically bound by a duty to publish and promote openness. In many countries, there are constitutional guarantees for the right of access to information, but these are usually unused if specific support legislation does not exist.

The original Star Trek was shown for the first time on United States NBC on September 8, 1966.

The first broadcast of Batman (the live-action TV series), The Monkees, Dark Shadows, Ultra Series, That Girl, Cathy Come Home, and Mission: Impossible.

Joseph Weizenbaum of MIT wrote a program called Eliza that made the computer act as a psychotherapist in 1966.

Top Film of 1966: A Man For All Seasons

 

If you have seen this film lets start a discussion

 

My choice for the top song of 1966 (because the others suck): #10 – The Mamas & The Pappas – California Dreamin’

 

20th Century: 1964

Computers built between 1964 and 1972 are often regarded as “third-generation” computers; they are based on the first integrated circuits – creating even smaller machines. Typical of such devices were the HP 2116A and Data General Nova.

Data General  Nova 1964 – Jeff Keyzer from Austin, TX, USA / CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)

Launch of IBM System/360 – the first series of compatible computers, reversing and stopping the evolution of separate “business” and “scientific” machine architectures; all models used the same basic instruction set architecture and register sizes, in theory allowing programs to be migrated to more or less powerful models as needs changed.

IBM System 360 1964 – Arnold Reinhold / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

Project MAC began at MIT by J.C.R. Licklider, who would become famous for groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation.

April 8, 1964: Gemini 1, a two-seat spacecraft system, launches in an uncrewed flight.

April 1964: Battlecrypt is born.

A mainframe adventure game from 1977:

Unscramble: okrz

Protected Area

This content is password-protected. Ordinarily, the previous posts will give you a clue.

1 May 1964: Programming language BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) developed at Dartmouth College, USA, by Thomas E. Kurtz and John George Kemeny.

“Our vision was that every student on campus should have access to a computer, and any faculty member should be able to use a computer in the classroom whenever appropriate. It was as simple as that.” – John George Kemeny’s reason for developing BASIC.


10 PRINT "HELLO FOO"
20 PRINT 2 + 2

July 28, 1964: Ranger 7 launches and is the Ranger series’ first success, taking photographs of the moon until it crashes into its surface four days later.

DEC PDP-8 Mini Computer. The first minicomputer, built by Digital Equipment (DEC). It cost US$18,500.

Oct. 12, 1964: The Soviet Union launches Voskhod 1, a modified Vostok orbiter with a three-person crew.

The first broadcast of Gilligan’s Island, The Munsters, Bewitched, The Man from U.N.C.L.E, The Addams Family, Top of the Pops, Match of the Day, Jeopardy!, Jonny Quest, and the Up series; The Beatles appear on The Ed Sullivan Show.

Top Film of 1964:

My_fair_lady_poster
Anyone who loves musicals should see this film. Iconic!

Top Song of 1964: Meh…

20th Century: 1963

Kodak introduces the Instamatic camera.

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) was developed in 1963 to standardize data exchange among computers.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey. It was formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers.

June 16, 1963, Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman to fly into space.

The first broadcast of General Hospital, The Fugitive, Astro Boy, The Outer Limits, and Doctor Who; The world watches in horror over the Assassination of John F. Kennedy.

Bell Telephone introduced the push-button telephone on November 18, 1963.

On December 7, 1963, during an Army-Navy football game on CBS, the first instant replay was shown on TV.

Top Song of 1963:

 

20th Century: 1962

Steve Russell creates “SpaceWar!” and releases it in February 1962. This game is considered the first game intended for computers.

AT&T Introduces the Bell 103, the first Commercially Available modem for transmitting data over phone lines (at 300 baud).

Sharp was founded.

The United States launches Telstar 1, which enables the trans-Atlantic transmission of television signals.

July 28, 1962: The U.S.S.R launches its first successful spy satellite, designated Cosmos 7.

Aug. 27, 1962: Mariner 2 launches and eventually performs the first successful interplanetary flyby when it passes by Venus.

The first broadcast of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, The Beverly Hillbillies, Steptoe, and Son, The Jetsons, University Challenge, Elgar, That Was The Week That Was, first satellite television relayed by Telstar 1.

Top Film of 1962:

Incorporates artwork by Howard Terpning / Public domain

Top song of 1962:

The top song sucks, so, I picked the #2 song.

 

 

20th Century: 1961

Feb. 12, 1961: The Soviet Union launches Venera to Venus, but the probe stops responding after a week.

April 12, 1961: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space with a 108-minute flight on Vostok 1 in which he completed one orbit.

GPN-2002-000168
Yuri Gagarin is on the bus on his way to the launch pad on the morning of April 12, 1961

May 5, 1961: Mercury Freedom 7 launches on a Redstone rocket for a 15-minute suborbital flight, making Alan Shepard the first American in space.

GPN-2000-001011
Astronaut Alan Shepard photographed in flight by a 16mm movie camera inside the Freedom 7 spacecraft.

May 25, 1961: In a speech before Congress, President John Kennedy announces that an American will land on the moon and be returned safely to Earth before the end of the decade.

Oct. 27, 1961: Saturn 1, the rocket for the initial Apollo missions, is tested for the first time.

IBM introduced the IBM 1301 disk storage unit on June 2, 1961, capable of storing 28 million characters, 2MB.

The first IBM Selectric typewriter was released on July 27, 1961, and introduced the typeball.

In September 1961, DEC donated the PDP-1 to MIT, where it was placed in the room next to its ancestor, the TX-0 computer, which was by then on indefinite loan from Lincoln Laboratory. PDP-1 helps solidify hackers’ ideology such as all information should be free.

 

Alex Handy (cropped by Arnold Reinhold) / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0) – PDP-1 & Steve Russel creator of Spacewar! – 1962

 

The first broadcast of The Avengers, The Defenders, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Morecambe, and Wise Show, Car 54, Where Are You?

Memorex was founded.

Top Film of 1961:

Designed by Joe Caroff –  Copyright © 1961 United Artists Corporation. / Public domain

Top Song of 1961:

Images of 1961:

 

The Incredible – Diana Rigg!, –  Public Domain view terms
File: Diana Rigg 1973.jpg
Created: Autumn 1973-00-00T00:00:00Z/9,P4241,Q40720568, as per NBC-TV release on back.

 

Feature  Presentation – Phantom Planet 1961

 

 

20th Century: 1960

Sony introduced their first transistorized radio, small enough to fit in a vest pocket, and able to be powered by a small battery. It was durable because there were no tubes to burn out.

2,000 computers are in use in the United States.

NASA launches TIROS, the first weather satellite into space.

Bob Bemer introduced the backslash.

General Motors puts the first industrial robot to work in a New Jersey factory. The robot is a 4,000-pound Unimate.

Physicist Theodore Maiman created the first laser.

RS-232 was first introduced in 1960 by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) as a Recommended Standard. The original DTEs were electromechanical teletypewriters, and the original DCEs were modems. When electronic terminals (smart and dumb) began to be used, they were often designed to be interchangeable with teletypewriters, and so supported RS-232.

Top Film of 1960.

© 1960 – United Artists Corporation / Public domain

Top Song of 1960:

The top song was Percy Faith, so, NO.

Number 2 is much better.

Brian Hendersons Bandstand

 

20th Century: 1959

Computers introduced between 1959 and 1964, often regarded as Second-generation computers, were based on discrete transistors and printed circuits – resulting in smaller, more powerful, and more reliable computers.

The Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) programming language first appeared.

Jan. 2, 1959, the U.S.S.R. launches Luna 1, which misses the moon but becomes the first artificial object to leave Earth orbit.

RIA Novosti archive, image #510848 / Alexander Mokletsov / CC-BY-SA 3.0 / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

Jan. 12, 1959: NASA awards McDonnell Corp. the contract to manufacture the Mercury capsules.

Feb. 28, 1959: NASA launches Discover 1, the U.S. first spy satellite, but it is not until Aug. 11, 1960, launch of Discover 13 that film is recovered successfully.

May 28, 1959: The United States launches the first primates in space, Able and Baker, on a suborbital flight.

Aug. 7, 1959: NASA’s Explorer 6 launches and provides the first photographs of the Earth from space.

Sept. 12, 1959: The Soviet Union’s Luna 2 is launched, and two days later is intentionally crashed into the Moon.

1959 the first broadcast of The Twilight Zone, Rocky and His Friends, The Untouchables, Rawhide, and Bonanza (which runs for fourteen years).

Hitachi was founded in 1959.

The Top Film of 1959:

Reynold Brown / Public domain

Top Song of 1959: Actually, it was Jonnhy Horton’s Battle of New Orleans, but I don’t like it, so here is a much better one at number 2.

Battlecrypt’s feature presentation:

Public Domain

20th Century: 1958

William Higinbotham created the first video game named Tennis for Two. It is an early video game which was exhibited at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s annual public exhibition and considered by some definitions to be the earliest video game ever made. It was on display for three days when originally displayed and returned the next year with a bigger oscilloscope screen and the ability to adjust gravity.

The game simulates a game of tennis on an oscilloscope attached to a Donner Model 30 analog computer. Players used custom made aluminum controllers with knobs to angle their shots, and a button in order to hit a ball back and forth. Unlike other early tennis-like simulations such as Pong, the ball is affected by gravity and uses a side view. The ball can hit the net or go out of bounds.

Tennis for Two – Oct 15, 1958

The Russian satellite Sputnik burns up as it reentered Earth’s atmosphere on January 4, 1958.

On Jan. 31, 1958 Explorer 1, the first satellite with an onboard telemetry system, is launched by the United States into orbit aboard a Juno rocket and returns data from space.

The first integrated circuit was first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first IC was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.

On Oct. 7, 1958, NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan publicly announces NASA’s manned spaceflight program along with the formation of the Space Task Group, a panel of scientists and engineers from space-policy organizations absorbed by NASA. The announcement came just six days after NASA was founded. This new agency is also in response to Sputnik.

President Eisenhower’s Christmas address is the first voice transmission from a satellite.

The first broadcast of Blue Peter, Quatermass and the Pit, The Donna Reed Show, Moonlight Mask, and The Huckleberry Hound Show. The quiz show scandals wipe out the $64,000 Question and Twenty-One.

Top Film of 1958:

Copyright © 1958 Loew, Incorporated / Public domain

Top Song of 1958:

 

 

 

20th Century: 1957 – The Race for Space

1957 started out like 2020 with a pandemic. The Asian Flu began in China and spread worldwide, killing an estimated 2 million people.

First digital computer acquisition of scanned photographs, by Russell Kirsch at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (now NIST).

Russia launched the first artificial satellite, named Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957. A modified R-7 two-stage ICBM launches the satellite Sputnik from Tyuratam. The Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States begins.

In response to Sputnik, the United States creates a new agency, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). This agency creates technology for the creation of the internet, military applications, and much more. The Sputnik launch also calls for the creation of NASA in 1958. This civilian agency is tasked with the peaceful exploration of space.

Digital Equipment Corporation was founded.

Nov. 3, 1957: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2 with the first living passenger, the dog Laika, aboard.

Laika became the first animal launched into Earth orbit, paving the way for human spaceflight during the upcoming years. This photograph shows her in a flight harness.

Dec. 6, 1957: A Vanguard TV-3 carrying a grapefruit-sized satellite explodes at launch; a failed response to the Sputnik launch by the United States.

The Bernstein Program is the earliest known chess game that implemented the complete ruleset. The game examines two levels of moves, but unlike earlier chess games doesn’t try out every possible move but only the seven most plausible moves. After determining what the most plausible moves are the game uses static factors and minimaxing to determine the best move. Running on the IBM 704 computer the program took about eight minutes to determine its move and never managed to defeat a human opponent.

Meanwhile, The Hackers of MIT “learn to hack” on the TX-O, an early fully transistorized computer that contained a then-huge 64KB of magnetic core memory.

News of Sputnik Oct 7, 1957:

The Race for Space:

Now Unclassified – NASA’s Origins and the Dawn of the Space Age: Sputnik’s response – World Opinion and the Soviet Satelight:  NASA_NTRS_Archive_20040045203

The top film of 1957:

© Columbia Pictures Corporation / Public Domain

Top Song of 1957: