20th Century: 1971

Chainmail-1st-thumb
DND beginnings. Let us discuss this book. By Source (WP: NFCC#4), Fair use.

Gygax and Perren’s set of medieval miniatures rules from the Castle & Crusade Society newsletter The Domesday Book brought Gygax to the attention of Guidon Games, who hired him to produce a “Wargaming with Miniatures” series of games. Towards the end of 1970, Gygax worked with Don Lowry to develop the first three products for the new Guidon Games wargames line. Among the three was a pamphlet of medieval rules entitled Chainmail which adopted much of the medieval rules published in the Domesday Book. Late in the development process, Gygax added to the end of Chainmail fourteen pages of a “Fantasy Supplement” which detailed the behavior of Heroes, Wizards, dragons, elves, and various other fantastic creatures and people.

The first edition Chainmail saw print in March 1971. It quickly became Guidon Games’ biggest hit, selling one hundred copies per month. A second edition would follow in July 1972, with several expansions and revisions to the original game. The January 1972 issue of the International Wargamer initially published the most significant of these changes, including the splitting of the “Wizard” type into four distinct levels of spell casters.

IBM shipped the first units of Noble’s solution, the 23 FD “Minnow” in 1971. The 8-inch floppy disk drive with removable read-only, flexible “memory disks” offered a storage capacity of 80 kilobytes (KB), approximately 3,000 punched cards.

While at Intel, Dov Frohman invented and patented (#3,660,819) the EPROM in 1971.

Ray Tomlinson sends the first e-mail, the first messaging system to send messages across a network to other users.

The computer gets a voice, IBM introduces its first speech recognition program capable of recognizing about 5,000 words.

FTP was first purposed on April 16, 1971, by Abhay Bhushan of MIT in RFC 114.

Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney created the first arcade game called “Computer Space” in 1971.

Nutting_ComputerSpace-Blue
Computer Space is a space combat arcade game developed in 1971. Created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney in partnership as Syzygy Engineering, it was the first arcade video game as well as the first commercially available video game.

The First edition of Unix released on November 3, 1971.

Bob Bemer published the world’s first warning on the Year 2000 problem in 1971.

Intel introduced the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 on November 15, 1971. The 4004 had 2,300 transistors, performed 60,000 operations per second (OPS), addressed 640 bytes of memory, and cost $200.00.

Intel 4004 – Thomas Nguyen / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)

 

20th Century: 1969

Spacewar is a two-player networked game inspired by the original Spacewar! on PLATO. Two players control a spaceship each in a two-dimensional representation of space. The ships can thrust, rotate, and fire and must try to destroy each other. The ships are represented by custom ASCII graphics. Unlike the original Spacewar! Here ships have only limited fuel and hyperspace jumps. Connected users are listed on-screen (big board) and can be challenged to a duel. The game was originally written for PLATO III but later ported to PLATO IV. When PLATO went on the ARPANET in 1974 the game became incompatible. It was replaced by Orbit War.

The first Request for Comments, RFC 1 published. The RFCs (network working group, Request For Comment) are a series of papers that are used to develop and define protocols for networking; originally the basis for ARPANET.

rfc1.txt

Telnet is an application protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

Telnet was developed on September 25, 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 855, and standardized as Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet Standard STD 8, one of the first Internet standards. The name stands for “teletype network”. Historically, Telnet provided access to a command-line interface on a remote host.

Jan. 16, 1969: Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 rendezvous and dock and perform the first in-orbit crew transfer.

March 3, 1969: Apollo 9 launches. During the mission, tests of the lunar module are conducted in Earth orbit.

The first artificial heart was placed into Haskell Carp on April 4, 1969, for 64 hours until a donor’s heart became available.

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) was founded on May 1, 1969.

May 22, 1969: Apollo 10’s Lunar Module Snoopy comes within 8.6 miles (14 kilometers) of the moon’s surface.

UCLA puts out a press release introducing the public to the Internet on July 3, 1969.

July 20, 1969: Six years after U.S. President John F. Kennedy’s assassination, the Apollo 11 crew lands on the Moon, fulfilling his promise to put an American there by the end of the decade and return him safely to Earth.

Eagle going for landing.
At 20:18 UTC on July 21, 1969, the Apollo 11 spacecraft landed on the moon, and Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon.

Ralph Baer files for a US patent on August 21, 1969, that describes playing games on television and would later be a part of the Magnavox Odyssey.

On September 2, 1969, the first data moves from UCLA host to the IMP switch and The first U.S. bank ATM went into service at 9:00AM.

Charley Kline, a UCLA student, tries to send “login,” the first message over ARPANET at 10:30 PM on October 29, 1969. The system transmitted “l” and then “o” but then crashed making today the first day a message was sent over the Internet and the first network crash.

On August 29, 1969, the first network switch and the first piece of network equipment (called “IMP,” which is short for “Interface Message Processor”) is sent to UCLA.

Summer 1969 Unix was developed.

CompuServe, the first commercial online service, was established.

Introduction of the RS-232 (serial interface) standard by EIA (Electronic Industries Association), one of the oldest serial interfaces still in use today.

Gary Starkweather, while working with Xerox invents the laser printer.

Feature Presentation: Wake me up when the war is over.

 

20th Century: 1968

Intel Corporation was founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore in 1968.

The Programming language LOGO was developed by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert, and Cynthia Solomon at MIT.

The Hewlett-Packard 9100A (HP 9100A) is an early programmable calculator (or computer), first appearing in 1968. HP called it a desktop calculator because, as Bill Hewlett said, “If we had called it a computer, it would have been rejected by our customers’ computer gurus because it didn’t look like an IBM. We, therefore, decided to call it a calculator, and all such nonsense disappeared.

 

HP 9100A – An early programmable calculator (computer). Hewlett Packard began marketing the first mass-marketed PC and the world’s first desktop computer.

Larry Roberts published the ARPANET program plan on June 3, 1968.

On June 4, 1968, Dr. Robert Dennard at the IBM T.J. Watson Research center was granted U.S. patent #3,387,286 describing a one-transistor DRAM cell. DRAM will later replace magnetic core memory in computers.

Oct. 11, 1968: Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, launches on a Saturn 1 for an 11-day mission in Earth orbit. The mission also featured the first live TV broadcast of humans in space.

Douglas Engelbart publicly demonstrated Hypertext on the NLS Computer on December 9, 1968, in the mother of all demos.

Dec. 21, 1968: Apollo 8 launches on a Saturn V and becomes the first manned mission to orbit the moon.

UCLA is selected to be the first node on the ARPAnet (later called the Internet).

American Television and Communications (ATC) was founded in 1968 and would later become Time Warner Cable.

The first broadcast of 60 Minutes, One Life to Live, Dad’s Army, Julia, Columbo, Elvis, Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, Hawaii Five-O, Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In, and Adam-12.

1968 Stuff:

San Francisco 1968 

Feature Presentation: Night of the Living Dead – Public Domain

 

 

20th Century: 1966

Jan. 14, 1966: The Soviet Union’s chief designer, Sergei Korolev, dies from complications stemming from routine surgery, leaving the Soviet space program without its most influential leader of the preceding 20 years.

Feb. 3, 1966: The unmanned Soviet spacecraft Luna 9 makes the first soft landing on the Moon.

ARPANET planning starts. In February 1966, Bob Taylor successfully lobbied ARPA’s Director Charles M. Herzfeld to fund a network project. Herzfeld redirected funds in the amount of one million dollars from a ballistic missile defense program to Taylor’s budget. Taylor hired Larry Roberts as a program manager in the ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office in January 1967 to work on the ARPANET.

March 1, 1966: The Soviet Union’s Venera 3 probe becomes the first spacecraft to land on the planet Venus, but its communications system failed before data could be returned.

March 16, 1966: Gemini 8 launches on a Titan 2 rocket and later docks with a previously launched Agena rocket — the first docking between two orbiting spacecraft.

The Agena Target Docking Vehicle seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Gemini adapter of the Agena is approximately two feet from the nose of the spacecraft (lower left). Crewmen for the Gemini-8 mission were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot. – NASA / Public domain

April 3, 1966: The Soviet Luna 10 space probe enters lunar orbit, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.

June 2, 1966: Surveyor 1, a lunar lander, performs the first successful U.S. soft landing on the Moon.

US President Lyndon Johnson signed the Freedom of Information Act into law on July 4, 1966. Freedom of information laws allows access by the general public to data held by national governments. The emergence of freedom of information legislation was a response to increasing dissatisfaction with the secrecy surrounding government policy development and decision making. They establish a “right-to-know” legal process by which requests may be made for government-held information, to be received freely or at minimal cost, barring standard exceptions. Also, variously referred to as open records, or sunshine laws (in the United States), governments are typically bound by a duty to publish and promote openness. In many countries, there are constitutional guarantees for the right of access to information, but these are usually unused if specific support legislation does not exist.

The original Star Trek was shown for the first time on United States NBC on September 8, 1966.

The first broadcast of Batman (the live-action TV series), The Monkees, Dark Shadows, Ultra Series, That Girl, Cathy Come Home, and Mission: Impossible.

Joseph Weizenbaum of MIT wrote a program called Eliza that made the computer act as a psychotherapist in 1966.

Top Film of 1966: A Man For All Seasons

 

If you have seen this film lets start a discussion

 

My choice for the top song of 1966 (because the others suck): #10 – The Mamas & The Pappas – California Dreamin’

 

20th Century: 1964

Computers built between 1964 and 1972 are often regarded as “third-generation” computers; they are based on the first integrated circuits – creating even smaller machines. Typical of such devices were the HP 2116A and Data General Nova.

Data General  Nova 1964 – Jeff Keyzer from Austin, TX, USA / CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)

Launch of IBM System/360. The first series of compatible computers, reversing and stopping the evolution of separate “business” and “scientific” machine architectures; all models used the same basic instruction set architecture and register sizes, in theory allowing programs to be migrated to more or less powerful models as needs changed.

IBM System 360 1964 – Arnold Reinhold / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

Project MAC began at MIT by J.C.R. Licklider, who would become famous for groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation.

April 8, 1964: Gemini 1, a two-seat spacecraft system, launches in an uncrewed flight.

April 1964: Battlecrypt is born.

A mainframe interactive fiction adventure game from 1977:

Unscramble: okrz

Protected Area

This content is password-protected. Ordinarily, the previous posts will give you a clue.

1 May 1964: Programming language BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) developed at Dartmouth College, USA, by Thomas E. Kurtz and John George Kemeny.

“Our vision was that every student on campus should have access to a computer, and any faculty member should be able to use a computer in the classroom whenever appropriate. It was as simple as that.” – John George Kemeny’s reason for developing BASIC.


10 PRINT "HELLO FOO"
20 PRINT 2 + 2

July 28, 1964: Ranger 7 launches and is the Ranger series’ first success, taking photographs of the moon until it crashes into its surface four days later.

DEC PDP-8 Mini Computer. The first minicomputer, built by Digital Equipment (DEC). It cost US$18,500.

Oct. 12, 1964: The Soviet Union launches Voskhod 1, a modified Vostok orbiter with a three-person crew.

The first broadcast of Gilligan’s Island, The Munsters, Bewitched, The Man from U.N.C.L.E, The Addams Family, Top of the Pops, Match of the Day, Jeopardy!, Jonny Quest, and the Up series; The Beatles appear on The Ed Sullivan Show.

Top Film of 1964:

My_fair_lady_poster
Anyone who loves musicals should see this film. Iconic!

Top Song of 1964: Meh…

20th Century: 1963

Kodak introduces the Instamatic camera.

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) was developed in 1963 to standardize data exchange among computers.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey. It was formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers.

June 16, 1963, Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman to fly into space.

The first broadcast of General Hospital, The Fugitive, Astro Boy, The Outer Limits, and Doctor Who; The world watches in horror over the Assassination of John F. Kennedy.

Bell Telephone introduced the push-button telephone on November 18, 1963.

On December 7, 1963, during an Army-Navy football game on CBS, the first instant replay was shown on TV.

Top Song of 1963:

 

20th Century: 1962

Steve Russell creates “SpaceWar!” and releases it in February 1962. This game is considered the first game intended for computers.

AT&T Introduces the Bell 103, the first Commercially Available modem for transmitting data over phone lines (at 300 baud).

Sharp was founded.

The United States launches Telstar 1, which enables the trans-Atlantic transmission of television signals.

July 28, 1962: The U.S.S.R launches its first successful spy satellite, designated Cosmos 7.

Aug. 27, 1962: Mariner 2 launches and eventually performs the first successful interplanetary flyby when it passes by Venus.

The first broadcast of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, The Beverly Hillbillies, Steptoe, and Son, The Jetsons, University Challenge, Elgar, That Was The Week That Was, first satellite television relayed by Telstar 1.

Top Film of 1962:

Incorporates artwork by Howard Terpning / Public domain

Top song of 1962:

The top song sucks, so, I picked the #2 song.

 

 

20th Century: 1961

Feb. 12, 1961: The Soviet Union launches Venera to Venus, but the probe stops responding after a week.

April 12, 1961: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space with a 108-minute flight on Vostok 1 in which he completed one orbit.

GPN-2002-000168
Yuri Gagarin is on the bus on his way to the launch pad on the morning of April 12, 1961

May 5, 1961: Mercury Freedom 7 launches on a Redstone rocket for a 15-minute suborbital flight, making Alan Shepard the first American in space.

GPN-2000-001011
Astronaut Alan Shepard photographed in flight by a 16mm movie camera inside the Freedom 7 spacecraft.

May 25, 1961: In a speech before Congress, President John Kennedy announces that an American will land on the moon and be returned safely to Earth before the end of the decade.

Oct. 27, 1961: Saturn 1, the rocket for the initial Apollo missions, is tested for the first time.

IBM introduced the IBM 1301 disk storage unit on June 2, 1961, capable of storing 28 million characters, 2MB.

The first IBM Selectric typewriter was released on July 27, 1961, and introduced the typeball.

In September 1961, DEC donated the PDP-1 to MIT, where it was placed in the room next to its ancestor, the TX-0 computer, which was by then on indefinite loan from Lincoln Laboratory. PDP-1 helps solidify hackers’ ideology such as all information should be free.

 

Alex Handy (cropped by Arnold Reinhold) / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0) – PDP-1 & Steve Russel creator of Spacewar! – 1962

 

The first broadcast of The Avengers, The Defenders, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Morecambe, and Wise Show, Car 54, Where Are You?

Memorex was founded.

Top Film of 1961:

Designed by Joe Caroff –  Copyright © 1961 United Artists Corporation. / Public domain

Top Song of 1961:

Images of 1961:

 

The Incredible – Diana Rigg!, –  Public Domain view terms
File: Diana Rigg 1973.jpg
Created: Autumn 1973-00-00T00:00:00Z/9,P4241,Q40720568, as per NBC-TV release on back.

 

Feature  Presentation – Phantom Planet 1961

 

 

20th Century: 1960

Sony introduced their first transistorized radio, small enough to fit in a vest pocket, and able to be powered by a small battery. It was durable because there were no tubes to burn out.

2,000 computers are in use in the United States.

NASA launches TIROS, the first weather satellite into space.

Bob Bemer introduced the backslash.

General Motors puts the first industrial robot to work in a New Jersey factory. The robot is a 4,000-pound Unimate.

Physicist Theodore Maiman created the first laser.

RS-232 was first introduced in 1960 by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) as a Recommended Standard. The original DTEs were electromechanical teletypewriters, and the original DCEs were modems. When electronic terminals (smart and dumb) began to be used, they were often designed to be interchangeable with teletypewriters, and so supported RS-232.

Top Film of 1960.

© 1960 – United Artists Corporation / Public domain

Top Song of 1960:

The top song was Percy Faith, so, NO.

Number 2 is much better.

Brian Hendersons Bandstand

 

20th Century: 1959

Computers introduced between 1959 and 1964, often regarded as Second-generation computers, were based on discrete transistors and printed circuits – resulting in smaller, more powerful, and more reliable computers.

The Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) programming language first appeared.

Jan. 2, 1959, the U.S.S.R. launches Luna 1, which misses the moon but becomes the first artificial object to leave Earth orbit.

RIA Novosti archive, image #510848 / Alexander Mokletsov / CC-BY-SA 3.0 / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

Jan. 12, 1959: NASA awards McDonnell Corp. the contract to manufacture the Mercury capsules.

Feb. 28, 1959: NASA launches Discover 1, the U.S. first spy satellite, but it is not until Aug. 11, 1960, launch of Discover 13 that film is recovered successfully.

May 28, 1959: The United States launches the first primates in space, Able and Baker, on a suborbital flight.

Aug. 7, 1959: NASA’s Explorer 6 launches and provides the first photographs of the Earth from space.

Sept. 12, 1959: The Soviet Union’s Luna 2 is launched, and two days later is intentionally crashed into the Moon.

1959 the first broadcast of The Twilight Zone, Rocky and His Friends, The Untouchables, Rawhide, and Bonanza (which runs for fourteen years).

Hitachi was founded in 1959.

The Top Film of 1959:

Reynold Brown / Public domain

Top Song of 1959: Actually, it was Jonnhy Horton’s Battle of New Orleans, but I don’t like it, so here is a much better one at number 2.

Battlecrypt’s feature presentation:

Public Domain