20th Century: 1971

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DND beginnings. Let us discuss this book. By Source (WP: NFCC#4), Fair use.

Gygax and Perren’s set of medieval miniatures rules from the Castle & Crusade Society newsletter The Domesday Book brought Gygax to the attention of Guidon Games, who hired him to produce a “Wargaming with Miniatures” series of games. Towards the end of 1970, Gygax worked with Don Lowry to develop the first three products for the new Guidon Games wargames line. Among the three was a pamphlet of medieval rules entitled Chainmail which adopted much of the medieval rules published in the Domesday Book. Late in the development process, Gygax added to the end of Chainmail fourteen pages of a “Fantasy Supplement” which detailed the behavior of Heroes, Wizards, dragons, elves, and various other fantastic creatures and people.

The first edition Chainmail saw print in March 1971. It quickly became Guidon Games’ biggest hit, selling one hundred copies per month. A second edition would follow in July 1972, with several expansions and revisions to the original game. The January 1972 issue of the International Wargamer initially published the most significant of these changes, including the splitting of the “Wizard” type into four distinct levels of spell casters.

IBM shipped the first units of Noble’s solution, the 23 FD “Minnow” in 1971. The 8-inch floppy disk drive with removable read-only, flexible “memory disks” offered a storage capacity of 80 kilobytes (KB), approximately 3,000 punched cards.

While at Intel, Dov Frohman invented and patented (#3,660,819) the EPROM in 1971.

Ray Tomlinson sends the first e-mail, the first messaging system to send messages across a network to other users.

The computer gets a voice, IBM introduces its first speech recognition program capable of recognizing about 5,000 words.

FTP was first purposed on April 16, 1971, by Abhay Bhushan of MIT in RFC 114.

Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney created the first arcade game called “Computer Space” in 1971.

Nutting_ComputerSpace-Blue
Computer Space is a space combat arcade game developed in 1971. Created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney in partnership as Syzygy Engineering, it was the first arcade video game as well as the first commercially available video game.

The First edition of Unix released on November 3, 1971.

Bob Bemer published the world’s first warning on the Year 2000 problem in 1971.

Intel introduced the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 on November 15, 1971. The 4004 had 2,300 transistors, performed 60,000 operations per second (OPS), addressed 640 bytes of memory, and cost $200.00.

Intel 4004 – Thomas Nguyen / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)

 

20th Century: 1958

William Higinbotham created the first video game named Tennis for Two. It is an early video game which was exhibited at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s annual public exhibition and considered by some definitions to be the earliest video game ever made. It was on display for three days when originally displayed and returned the next year with a bigger oscilloscope screen and the ability to adjust gravity.

The game simulates a game of tennis on an oscilloscope attached to a Donner Model 30 analog computer. Players used custom made aluminum controllers with knobs to angle their shots, and a button in order to hit a ball back and forth. Unlike other early tennis-like simulations such as Pong, the ball is affected by gravity and uses a side view. The ball can hit the net or go out of bounds.

Tennis for Two – Oct 15, 1958

The Russian satellite Sputnik burns up as it reentered Earth’s atmosphere on January 4, 1958.

On Jan. 31, 1958 Explorer 1, the first satellite with an onboard telemetry system, is launched by the United States into orbit aboard a Juno rocket and returns data from space.

The first integrated circuit was first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first IC was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.

On Oct. 7, 1958, NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan publicly announces NASA’s manned spaceflight program along with the formation of the Space Task Group, a panel of scientists and engineers from space-policy organizations absorbed by NASA. The announcement came just six days after NASA was founded. This new agency is also in response to Sputnik.

President Eisenhower’s Christmas address is the first voice transmission from a satellite.

The first broadcast of Blue Peter, Quatermass and the Pit, The Donna Reed Show, Moonlight Mask, and The Huckleberry Hound Show. The quiz show scandals wipe out the $64,000 Question and Twenty-One.

Top Film of 1958:

Copyright © 1958 Loew, Incorporated / Public domain

Top Song of 1958:

 

 

 

20th Century: 1952

Bwana Devil, a low-budget polarized 3-D film, premieres in late November and starts a brief 3-D craze that begins in earnest in 1953 and fades away during 1954.

Alexander Sandy Douglas created the first graphical computer game of Tic-Tac-Toe on an EDSAC known as “OXO.”

Recording Industry Association of America, RIAA is a trade group first established in 1952 that has been set up to represent the U.S. recording industry.

The first broadcast of Today (NBC), This Is Your Life, Omnibus, and Flower Pot Men; Hockey Night in Canada and The Guiding Light moves from radio to TV; Adverts: Everyone Loves a Slinky and Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes Tony the Tiger.

Geoffrey Dummer, a British radar engineer, introduces the concept of the integrated circuit at a tech conference in the United States.

Top Film of 1952: The Greatest Show on Earth.

However, I like this one better: The Quiet Man.

May incorporate artwork by Clement Hurel – see Nollen, Scott Allen (2013) Three Bad Men: John Ford, John Wayne, Ward Bond, McFarland, p. 352 ISBN: 9780786458547. / Public domain

Top Song of 1952: Leroy Anderson – Blue Tango

Images of 1952:

Chevy Advertisement 1952:

 

Space Patrol – Interplanetary Smugglers (1952)

20th Century: 1951

J Lyons, a United Kingdom food company, famous for its tea, made history by running the first business application on an electronic computer.

The oldest known recordings of computer-generated music were played by the Ferranti Mark 1 computer.

Grace Hopper develops A-0, the first Arithmetic language.

Jay Forrester applies for a patent for magnetic-core memory, an early type of random access memory (RAM) on May 11, 1951.

A nixie tube is a display tube first introduced in 1951 by Burroughs Corporation that is capable of displaying numbers 0 through 9. These tubes were found in early electronic devices such as calculators, frequency counters, voltmeters, and other devices that needed a method of displaying numeric values.

Geophysical Service Incorporated was renamed to Texas Instruments in 1951.

IBM introduces the IBM 701, the first computer in its 700 and 7000 series of large scale machines with varied scientific and commercial architectures, but common electronics and peripherals. Some computers in this series remained in service until the 1980s.

The first broadcast of I Love Lucy, See It Now, Dragnet, the Hallmark Hall of Fame, Search for Tomorrow, Love of Life, and The Roy Rogers Show.

The Top film of 1951:

Top Song of 1951: Nat King Cole – Too Young

Images of 1951:

Differential Analyzer built under Mergler in Instrument Research. The technician is preparing a data report. This equipment is located at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, LFPL, now John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland Ohio.

 

Burns & Allen – 1951

Leslie Claire Margaret Caron – Actress

Gene Kelly Actor – Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer / Public domain

20th Century: 1950

The British mathematician and computer pioneer Alan Turing published a paper describing the potential development of human and computer intelligence and communication. The paper would come later to be called the Turing Test.

The Pilot ACE computer, with 800 vacuum tubes, and mercury delay lines for its main memory, became operational on 10 May 1950 at the National Physical Laboratory near London. It was a preliminary version of the full ACE, which had been designed by Alan Turing.

The United States Government received the UNIVAC 1101 or ERA 1101. This computer was considered to be the first computer that was capable of storing and running a program from memory.

Bertie the Brain is an early computer game of Tic-Tac-Toe. Built for the 1950 Canadian National Exhibition the game allowed players to play against an AI opponent. Player input was given using a lit keypad and the state of the game displayed on panels lit by light bulbs rather than a conventional screen. An additional panel with light bulbs would show whether the player or AI was on. The difficulty of the AI could be adjusted by the operator. Bertie the Brain was created to demonstrate the additron tube, which was soon surpassed by the transistor.

Bertie the Brain – 1950

The first broadcast of Come Dancing, Broadway Open House, Your Show of Shows, and What’s My Line?. Jack Benny and Burns & Allen move from radio to TV.

Cuba is the first Caribbean country to receive TV. Brazil is the first South American country to receive TV.

Nielsen Media Research begins to provide television rating data.

Top Film of 1950:

Top Song of 1950: Goodnight Irene by Gordon Jenkins and The Weavers.

Images of 1950:

A new chapter in space flight began in July 1950 with the launch of the first rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida: the Bumper 2.

1950 magazine ad