20th Century: 1974

The Intel 8080 (“eighty-eighty”) is the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. On April 1, 1974, it first appeared and was an extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility. The initial specified clock rate or frequency limit was 2 MHz. With common instructions using 4, 5, 7, 10, or 11 cycles, this meant that it operated at a typical speed of a few hundred thousand instructions per second. A faster variant, 8080A-1 (Sometimes called the 8080B), became available later with a clock frequency limit of 3.125 MHz.

Intel 8080A – Konstantin Lanzet / CC BY-SA (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)

The 6800 (“sixty-eight hundred”) is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974. The MC6800 microprocessor was part of the M6800 Microcomputer System, including serial and parallel interface ICs, RAM, ROM, and other support chips. A significant design feature was that the M6800 family of ICs required only a single five-volt power supply at a time when most other microprocessors required three voltages. The M6800 Microcomputer System was announced in March 1974 and was in full production by the end of that year.

March 29, 1974: Mariner 10 becomes the first spacecraft to fly by Mercury.

Telenet was an American commercial packet-switched network that went into service in 1975. It was the first FCC-licensed public data network in the United States. Various commercial and government interests paid monthly fees for dedicated lines connecting their computers and local networks to this backbone network. Free public dialup access to Telenet, for those who wished to access these systems, was provided in hundreds of cities throughout the United States. The first Internet Service Provider (ISP).

Altair 8800 kits start going on sale on December 19, 1974. Altair 8800 Computer had an 8-inch floppy disk system.

Circuit boards – left to right

  1. Seals 8K Static RAM board
  2. MITS floppy disk controller (2 board set)
  3. MITS floppy disk controller
  4. MITS 16K Dynamic RAM board
  5. MITS 16K Dynamic RAM board
  6. MITS SIO-2 Dual serial port board
  7. Solid State Music PROM board
  8. MITS 8080 CPU board
A loaded Altair 8800 – Michael Holley / Public domain

Digital Research was founded by Gary Kildall in 1974.

Foxconn was founded in 1974. Foxconn manufactures electronic products for major American, Canadian, Chinese, Finnish, and Japanese companies. Notable products manufactured by Foxconn include the BlackBerry, iPad, iPhone, iPod, Kindle, Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo Switch, Nintendo Switch Lite, Nokia devices, Xiaomi devices, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Wii U, Xbox 360, Xbox One,and several CPU sockets, including the TR4 CPU socket on some motherboards. As of 2012, Foxconn factories manufactured an estimated 40% of all consumer electronics sold worldwide.

The first broadcast of Chico and the Man, Derrick, Happy Days, Little House on the Prairie, Police Woman, Rhoda, Good Times, The Rockford Files.

Software:

CLU is a programming language created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Barbara Liskov and her students between 1974 and 1975. While it did not find extensive use, it introduced many widely used features and are seen as steps in developing object-oriented programming (OOP).

GRASS (GRAphics Symbiosis System) is a programming language created to script 2D vector graphics animations. GRASS was similar to BASIC in syntax but added numerous instructions for specifying 2D object animation, including scaling, translation, and rotation over time. These functions were directly supported by the Vector General 3D graphics terminal GRASS was written for. It quickly became a hit with the artistic community who experimented with the new medium of computer graphics. It is most famous for Larry Cuba’s use to create the original “attacking the Death Star will not be easy” animation in Star Wars (1977).

BATCH-11/DOS-11, also known as DOS-11, is a discontinued operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) of Maynard, Massachusetts. The first version of DOS-11 (V08-02) was released in 1970 and was the first operating system to run on the Digital PDP-11 minicomputer. DOS-11 was not known to be easy to use even in its day and became much less used in 1973 with the release of the RT-11 operating system.

 

Pop Culture:

 

Legendary Band

 

Legendary Band

 

1974 – Fair Use -Let’s discuss this show in the comments.

 

1974 – Fair Use -Let’s discuss this show in the comments.

 

20th Century: 1971

Chainmail-1st-thumb
DND beginnings. Let us discuss this book. By Source (WP: NFCC#4), Fair use.

Gygax and Perren’s set of medieval miniatures rules from the Castle & Crusade Society newsletter The Domesday Book brought Gygax to the attention of Guidon Games, who hired him to produce a “Wargaming with Miniatures” series of games. Towards the end of 1970, Gygax worked with Don Lowry to develop the first three products for the new Guidon Games wargames line. Among the three was a pamphlet of medieval rules entitled Chainmail which adopted much of the medieval rules published in the Domesday Book. Late in the development process, Gygax added to the end of Chainmail fourteen pages of a “Fantasy Supplement” which detailed the behavior of Heroes, Wizards, dragons, elves, and various other fantastic creatures and people.

The first edition Chainmail saw print in March 1971. It quickly became Guidon Games’ biggest hit, selling one hundred copies per month. A second edition would follow in July 1972, with several expansions and revisions to the original game. The January 1972 issue of the International Wargamer initially published the most significant of these changes, including the splitting of the “Wizard” type into four distinct levels of spell casters.

IBM shipped the first units of Noble’s solution, the 23 FD “Minnow” in 1971. The 8-inch floppy disk drive with removable read-only, flexible “memory disks” offered a storage capacity of 80 kilobytes (KB), approximately 3,000 punched cards.

While at Intel, Dov Frohman invented and patented (#3,660,819) the EPROM in 1971.

Ray Tomlinson sends the first e-mail, the first messaging system to send messages across a network to other users.

The computer gets a voice, IBM introduces its first speech recognition program capable of recognizing about 5,000 words.

FTP was first purposed on April 16, 1971, by Abhay Bhushan of MIT in RFC 114.

Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney created the first arcade game called “Computer Space” in 1971.

Nutting_ComputerSpace-Blue
Computer Space is a space combat arcade game developed in 1971. Created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney in partnership as Syzygy Engineering, it was the first arcade video game as well as the first commercially available video game.

The First edition of Unix released on November 3, 1971.

Bob Bemer published the world’s first warning on the Year 2000 problem in 1971.

Intel introduced the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 on November 15, 1971. The 4004 had 2,300 transistors, performed 60,000 operations per second (OPS), addressed 640 bytes of memory, and cost $200.00.

Intel 4004 – Thomas Nguyen / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)