20th Century: 1969

Spacewar is a two-player networked game inspired by the original Spacewar! on PLATO. Two players control a spaceship each in a two-dimensional representation of space. The ships can thrust, rotate, and fire and must try to destroy each other. The ships are represented by custom ASCII graphics. Unlike the original Spacewar! Here ships have only limited fuel and hyperspace jumps. Connected users are listed on-screen (big board) and can be challenged to a duel. The game was originally written for PLATO III but later ported to PLATO IV. When PLATO went on the ARPANET in 1974 the game became incompatible. It was replaced by Orbit War.

The first Request for Comments, RFC 1 published. The RFCs (network working group, Request For Comment) are a series of papers that are used to develop and define protocols for networking; originally the basis for ARPANET.

rfc1.txt

Telnet is an application protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

Telnet was developed on September 25, 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 855, and standardized as Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet Standard STD 8, one of the first Internet standards. The name stands for “teletype network”. Historically, Telnet provided access to a command-line interface on a remote host.

Jan. 16, 1969: Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 rendezvous and dock and perform the first in-orbit crew transfer.

March 3, 1969: Apollo 9 launches. During the mission, tests of the lunar module are conducted in Earth orbit.

The first artificial heart was placed into Haskell Carp on April 4, 1969, for 64 hours until a donor’s heart became available.

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) was founded on May 1, 1969.

May 22, 1969: Apollo 10’s Lunar Module Snoopy comes within 8.6 miles (14 kilometers) of the moon’s surface.

UCLA puts out a press release introducing the public to the Internet on July 3, 1969.

July 20, 1969: Six years after U.S. President John F. Kennedy’s assassination, the Apollo 11 crew lands on the Moon, fulfilling his promise to put an American there by the end of the decade and return him safely to Earth.

Eagle going for landing.
At 20:18 UTC on July 21, 1969, the Apollo 11 spacecraft landed on the moon, and Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon.

Ralph Baer files for a US patent on August 21, 1969, that describes playing games on television and would later be a part of the Magnavox Odyssey.

On September 2, 1969, the first data moves from UCLA host to the IMP switch and The first U.S. bank ATM went into service at 9:00AM.

Charley Kline, a UCLA student, tries to send “login,” the first message over ARPANET at 10:30 PM on October 29, 1969. The system transmitted “l” and then “o” but then crashed making today the first day a message was sent over the Internet and the first network crash.

On August 29, 1969, the first network switch and the first piece of network equipment (called “IMP,” which is short for “Interface Message Processor”) is sent to UCLA.

Summer 1969 Unix was developed.

CompuServe, the first commercial online service, was established.

Introduction of the RS-232 (serial interface) standard by EIA (Electronic Industries Association), one of the oldest serial interfaces still in use today.

Gary Starkweather, while working with Xerox invents the laser printer.

Feature Presentation: Wake me up when the war is over.

 

20th Century: 1968

Intel Corporation was founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore in 1968.

The Programming language LOGO was developed by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert, and Cynthia Solomon at MIT.

The Hewlett-Packard 9100A (HP 9100A) is an early programmable calculator (or computer), first appearing in 1968. HP called it a desktop calculator because, as Bill Hewlett said, “If we had called it a computer, it would have been rejected by our customers’ computer gurus because it didn’t look like an IBM. We, therefore, decided to call it a calculator, and all such nonsense disappeared.

 

HP 9100A – An early programmable calculator (computer). Hewlett Packard began marketing the first mass-marketed PC and the world’s first desktop computer.

Larry Roberts published the ARPANET program plan on June 3, 1968.

On June 4, 1968, Dr. Robert Dennard at the IBM T.J. Watson Research center was granted U.S. patent #3,387,286 describing a one-transistor DRAM cell. DRAM will later replace magnetic core memory in computers.

Oct. 11, 1968: Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, launches on a Saturn 1 for an 11-day mission in Earth orbit. The mission also featured the first live TV broadcast of humans in space.

Douglas Engelbart publicly demonstrated Hypertext on the NLS Computer on December 9, 1968, in the mother of all demos.

Dec. 21, 1968: Apollo 8 launches on a Saturn V and becomes the first manned mission to orbit the moon.

UCLA is selected to be the first node on the ARPAnet (later called the Internet).

American Television and Communications (ATC) was founded in 1968 and would later become Time Warner Cable.

The first broadcast of 60 Minutes, One Life to Live, Dad’s Army, Julia, Columbo, Elvis, Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, Hawaii Five-O, Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In, and Adam-12.

1968 Stuff:

San Francisco 1968 

Feature Presentation: Night of the Living Dead – Public Domain

 

 

20th Century: 1964

Computers built between 1964 and 1972 are often regarded as “third-generation” computers; they are based on the first integrated circuits – creating even smaller machines. Typical of such devices were the HP 2116A and Data General Nova.

Data General  Nova 1964 – Jeff Keyzer from Austin, TX, USA / CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)

Launch of IBM System/360. The first series of compatible computers, reversing and stopping the evolution of separate “business” and “scientific” machine architectures; all models used the same basic instruction set architecture and register sizes, in theory allowing programs to be migrated to more or less powerful models as needs changed.

IBM System 360 1964 – Arnold Reinhold / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

Project MAC began at MIT by J.C.R. Licklider, who would become famous for groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation.

April 8, 1964: Gemini 1, a two-seat spacecraft system, launches in an uncrewed flight.

April 1964: Battlecrypt is born.

A mainframe interactive fiction adventure game from 1977:

Unscramble: okrz

ONLY THE WORTHY

This content is password-protected.

1 May 1964: Programming language BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) developed at Dartmouth College, USA, by Thomas E. Kurtz and John George Kemeny.

“Our vision was that every student on campus should have access to a computer, and any faculty member should be able to use a computer in the classroom whenever appropriate. It was as simple as that.” – John George Kemeny’s reason for developing BASIC.


10 PRINT "HELLO FOO"
20 PRINT 2 + 2

July 28, 1964: Ranger 7 launches and is the Ranger series’ first success, taking photographs of the moon until it crashes into its surface four days later.

DEC PDP-8 Mini Computer. The first minicomputer, built by Digital Equipment (DEC). It cost US$18,500.

Oct. 12, 1964: The Soviet Union launches Voskhod 1, a modified Vostok orbiter with a three-person crew.

The first broadcast of Gilligan’s Island, The Munsters, Bewitched, The Man from U.N.C.L.E, The Addams Family, Top of the Pops, Match of the Day, Jeopardy!, Jonny Quest, and the Up series; The Beatles appear on The Ed Sullivan Show.

Top Film of 1964:

My_fair_lady_poster
Anyone who loves musicals should see this film. Iconic!

Top Song of 1964: Meh…

20th Century: 1962

Steve Russell creates “SpaceWar!” and releases it in February 1962. This game is considered the first game intended for computers.

AT&T Introduces the Bell 103, the first Commercially Available modem for transmitting data over phone lines (at 300 baud).

Sharp was founded.

The United States launches Telstar 1, which enables the trans-Atlantic transmission of television signals.

July 28, 1962: The U.S.S.R launches its first successful spy satellite, designated Cosmos 7.

Aug. 27, 1962: Mariner 2 launches and eventually performs the first successful interplanetary flyby when it passes by Venus.

The first broadcast of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, The Beverly Hillbillies, Steptoe, and Son, The Jetsons, University Challenge, Elgar, That Was The Week That Was, first satellite television relayed by Telstar 1.

Top Film of 1962:

Incorporates artwork by Howard Terpning / Public domain

Top song of 1962:

The top song sucks, so, I picked the #2 song.

 

 

20th Century: 1957 – The Race for Space

1957 started out like 2020 with a pandemic. The Asian Flu began in China and spread worldwide, killing an estimated 2 million people.

First digital computer acquisition of scanned photographs, by Russell Kirsch at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (now NIST).

Russia launched the first artificial satellite, named Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957. A modified R-7 two-stage ICBM launches the satellite Sputnik from Tyuratam. The Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States begins.

In response to Sputnik, the United States creates a new agency, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). This agency creates technology for the creation of the internet, military applications, and much more. The Sputnik launch also calls for the creation of NASA in 1958. This civilian agency is tasked with the peaceful exploration of space.

Digital Equipment Corporation was founded.

Nov. 3, 1957: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2 with the first living passenger, the dog Laika, aboard.

Laika became the first animal launched into Earth orbit, paving the way for human spaceflight during the upcoming years. This photograph shows her in a flight harness.

Dec. 6, 1957: A Vanguard TV-3 carrying a grapefruit-sized satellite explodes at launch; a failed response to the Sputnik launch by the United States.

The Bernstein Program is the earliest known chess game that implemented the complete ruleset. The game examines two levels of moves, but unlike earlier chess games doesn’t try out every possible move but only the seven most plausible moves. After determining what the most plausible moves are the game uses static factors and minimaxing to determine the best move. Running on the IBM 704 computer the program took about eight minutes to determine its move and never managed to defeat a human opponent.

Meanwhile, The Hackers of MIT “learn to hack” on the TX-O, an early fully transistorized computer that contained a then-huge 64KB of magnetic core memory.

News of Sputnik Oct 7, 1957:

The Race for Space:

Now Unclassified – NASA’s Origins and the Dawn of the Space Age: Sputnik’s response – World Opinion and the Soviet Satelight:  NASA_NTRS_Archive_20040045203

The top film of 1957:

© Columbia Pictures Corporation / Public Domain

Top Song of 1957:

20th Century: 1955

MIT introduced the Whirlwind machine on March 8, 1955, a revolutionary computer that was the first digital computer with magnetic core RAM.

The first broadcast of The Honeymooners, The Mickey Mouse Club, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Sunday Night at the London Palladium, The Benny Hill Show, The Sooty Show, Gunsmoke and Captain Kangaroo; ITV launches in the UK.

The first conference on artificial intelligence held at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire.

The Top film of 1955: “MARTY”

Copyright 1955 United Artists – Public Domain

 

Top Song of 1955: Bill Haley and the Comets – Rock Around the Clock