20th Century: 1974

The Intel 8080 (“eighty-eighty”) is the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. On April 1, 1974, it first appeared and was an extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility. The initial specified clock rate or frequency limit was 2 MHz. With common instructions using 4, 5, 7, 10, or 11 cycles, this meant that it operated at a typical speed of a few hundred thousand instructions per second. A faster variant, 8080A-1 (Sometimes called the 8080B), became available later with a clock frequency limit of 3.125 MHz.

Intel 8080A – Konstantin Lanzet / CC BY-SA (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)

The 6800 (“sixty-eight hundred”) is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974. The MC6800 microprocessor was part of the M6800 Microcomputer System, including serial and parallel interface ICs, RAM, ROM, and other support chips. A significant design feature was that the M6800 family of ICs required only a single five-volt power supply at a time when most other microprocessors required three voltages. The M6800 Microcomputer System was announced in March 1974 and was in full production by the end of that year.

March 29, 1974: Mariner 10 becomes the first spacecraft to fly by Mercury.

Telenet was an American commercial packet-switched network that went into service in 1975. It was the first FCC-licensed public data network in the United States. Various commercial and government interests paid monthly fees for dedicated lines connecting their computers and local networks to this backbone network. Free public dialup access to Telenet, for those who wished to access these systems, was provided in hundreds of cities throughout the United States. The first Internet Service Provider (ISP).

Altair 8800 kits start going on sale on December 19, 1974. Altair 8800 Computer had an 8-inch floppy disk system.

Circuit boards – left to right

  1. Seals 8K Static RAM board
  2. MITS floppy disk controller (2 board set)
  3. MITS floppy disk controller
  4. MITS 16K Dynamic RAM board
  5. MITS 16K Dynamic RAM board
  6. MITS SIO-2 Dual serial port board
  7. Solid State Music PROM board
  8. MITS 8080 CPU board
A loaded Altair 8800 – Michael Holley / Public domain

Digital Research was founded by Gary Kildall in 1974.

Foxconn was founded in 1974. Foxconn manufactures electronic products for major American, Canadian, Chinese, Finnish, and Japanese companies. Notable products manufactured by Foxconn include the BlackBerry, iPad, iPhone, iPod, Kindle, Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo Switch, Nintendo Switch Lite, Nokia devices, Xiaomi devices, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Wii U, Xbox 360, Xbox One,and several CPU sockets, including the TR4 CPU socket on some motherboards. As of 2012, Foxconn factories manufactured an estimated 40% of all consumer electronics sold worldwide.

The first broadcast of Chico and the Man, Derrick, Happy Days, Little House on the Prairie, Police Woman, Rhoda, Good Times, The Rockford Files.

Software:

CLU is a programming language created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Barbara Liskov and her students between 1974 and 1975. While it did not find extensive use, it introduced many widely used features and are seen as steps in developing object-oriented programming (OOP).

GRASS (GRAphics Symbiosis System) is a programming language created to script 2D vector graphics animations. GRASS was similar to BASIC in syntax but added numerous instructions for specifying 2D object animation, including scaling, translation, and rotation over time. These functions were directly supported by the Vector General 3D graphics terminal GRASS was written for. It quickly became a hit with the artistic community who experimented with the new medium of computer graphics. It is most famous for Larry Cuba’s use to create the original “attacking the Death Star will not be easy” animation in Star Wars (1977).

BATCH-11/DOS-11, also known as DOS-11, is a discontinued operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) of Maynard, Massachusetts. The first version of DOS-11 (V08-02) was released in 1970 and was the first operating system to run on the Digital PDP-11 minicomputer. DOS-11 was not known to be easy to use even in its day and became much less used in 1973 with the release of the RT-11 operating system.

 

Pop Culture:

 

Legendary Band

 

Legendary Band

 

1974 – Fair Use -Let’s discuss this show in the comments.

 

1974 – Fair Use -Let’s discuss this show in the comments.

 

20th Century: 1973

Ethernet developed; this became a popular way of connecting PCs and other computers to share data and devices such as printers. A group of machines connected together in this way is known as a LAN.

The IBM3340 hard disk drive (HDD) that began shipping in November 1973 pioneered new low-cost, low-load, landing read/write heads with lubricated disks and established what became the dominant HDD technology. Al Shugart identified this new “Winchester head” as one of the four most significant mass storage developments.

Global networking becomes a reality as the University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway) connect to ARPANET. The term Internet is born.

Development of the TCP/IP protocol suite by a group headed by Vinton Cerf and Robert E. Kahn.

The first computer monitor was released as part of the Xerox Alto computer system.

                                                                                                                  – Joho345 / Public Domain

The first VoIP call was made in 1973. Danny Cohen first demonstrated a form of packet voice in 1973 as part of a flight simulator application, which operated across the early ARPANET.

May 1973 – Empire I is the first game in the Empire (PLATO) series. It was most likely the first networked multiplayer game available on an open network allowing more than two players. In this simulation game, up to eight players take control of their respective planets. The screen showed each of the planets and space ships that the players controlled and information about the economy, population, manufacturing, and trade. Space ships could be used to transport goods, attack, and transport military forces.

May 14, 1973: A Saturn V rocket launches Skylab, the first space station.

Judge awards John Vincent Atanasoff as the inventor of the first electronic digital computer on October 19, 1973.

The first broadcast of The Ascent of Man, Moonbase 3, The Wombles, The Young and the Restless, An American Family, Seventeen Moments of Spring, Last of the Summer Wine, and The World at War.

Datalink is founded.

Pioneer is founded.

Founded in 1973, ICCP’s mission is to standardize the certifications given to IS professionals throughout the industry. The mission of the ICCP is to promote the continuous improvement of the Information System profession and professionals through certification, enforcement of a professional code of ethics, standards of conduct, and continuing education.

In 1973 Gary Kildall, a Naval Postgraduate School instructor and consultant to Intel, writes PL/M for the 8008, the first programming language and first compiler specifically for microprocessors. It’s a cross compiler written in ANSI standard Fortran IV so it will run on most computers, including a PDP-10. However, the 8008’s seven-level subroutine call stack is too small to support a self-hosted compiler. Kildall also wrote an 8008 simulator in Fortran IV.

On a summer job in Vancouver, Washington working for TRW, a contractor for the Bonneville Power Administration, in his spare time, Paul Allen adapts the PDP-10 Macro Assembler and DDT debugger to create an 8008 simulator that lets Bill Gates develop code for their 8008-based Traf-O-Data computer built by Paul Gilbert. Allen had previously tried, without success, writing the simulator on the IBM System/360 at Washington State University, where he was studying computer science.