20th Century: 1970

The Unix time, aka Epoch time, is set to start on January 1, 1970.

The Network Control Program (NCP) provided the middle layers of the protocol stack running on host computers of the ARPANET, the predecessor to the modern Internet.

NCP preceded the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport layer protocol used during the early ARPANET. NCP was a simplex protocol that utilized two port addresses, establishing two connections for two-way communications. An odd and an even port were reserved for each application layer application or protocol. The standardization of TCP and UDP reduced the need for the use of two simplex ports for each application down to one duplex port. Stephen D. Crocker, then a graduate student at UCLA, formed and led the Network Working Group (NWG) and specifically led the development of NCP. Other participants in the NWG developed application-level protocols such as TELNET, FTP, SMTP, among others.

Intel released its first commercially available DRAM, the Intel 1103 in October 1970. Capable of storing 1024 bytes or 1 KB of memory.

The Intel 4004, developed in 1970, is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. It was the first commercially produced microprocessor and the first in a long line of Intel CPUs.

Intel 4004 CPU – Thomas Nguyen / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)

The first dot-matrix impact printer was developed by Centronics in 1970.

IBM introduced the System/370 that included the use of Virtual Memory and utilized memory chips instead of magnetic core technology.

Douglas Engelbart got a patent for the first computer mouse on November 17, 1970.

SRI_Computer_Mouse
SRI International / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

Philips introduced the VCR in 1970.

Henry Edward Roberts establishes Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) in 1970.

Western Digital was founded.

1970: The first broadcast of The Mary Tyler Moore Show, The Odd Couple, Monday Night Football and All My Children; Advert Smash Martians; PBS is launched.

Apollo 13: “Houston, We’ve Got A Problem.”

This video contains historical footage of the flight of Apollo-13, the fifth Lunar Mission, and the third spacecraft that was to land on the Moon. Apollo-13’s launch date was April 11, 1970. On the 13th of April, after docking with the Lunar Module, the astronauts, Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swigert, discovered that their oxygen tanks had ruptured and ended up entering and returning to Earth in the Lunar Module instead of the Command Module. There is footage of inside module and Mission Control shots, personal commentary by the astronauts concerning the problems as they developed, national news footage and commentary, and a post-flight Presidential Address by President Richard Nixon.

 

20th Century: 1969

Spacewar is a two-player networked game inspired by the original Spacewar! on PLATO. Two players control a spaceship each in a two-dimensional representation of space. The ships can thrust, rotate, and fire and must try to destroy each other. The ships are represented by custom ASCII graphics. Unlike the original Spacewar! Here ships have only limited fuel and hyperspace jumps. Connected users are listed on-screen (big board) and can be challenged to a duel. The game was originally written for PLATO III but later ported to PLATO IV. When PLATO went on the ARPANET in 1974 the game became incompatible. It was replaced by Orbit War.

The first Request for Comments, RFC 1 published. The RFCs (network working group, Request For Comment) are a series of papers that are used to develop and define protocols for networking; originally the basis for ARPANET.

rfc1.txt

Telnet is an application protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

Telnet was developed on September 25, 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 855, and standardized as Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet Standard STD 8, one of the first Internet standards. The name stands for “teletype network”. Historically, Telnet provided access to a command-line interface on a remote host.

Jan. 16, 1969: Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 rendezvous and dock and perform the first in-orbit crew transfer.

March 3, 1969: Apollo 9 launches. During the mission, tests of the lunar module are conducted in Earth orbit.

The first artificial heart was placed into Haskell Carp on April 4, 1969, for 64 hours until a donor’s heart became available.

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) was founded on May 1, 1969.

May 22, 1969: Apollo 10’s Lunar Module Snoopy comes within 8.6 miles (14 kilometers) of the moon’s surface.

UCLA puts out a press release introducing the public to the Internet on July 3, 1969.

July 20, 1969: Six years after U.S. President John F. Kennedy’s assassination, the Apollo 11 crew lands on the Moon, fulfilling his promise to put an American there by the end of the decade and return him safely to Earth.

Eagle going for landing.
At 20:18 UTC on July 21, 1969, the Apollo 11 spacecraft landed on the moon, and Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon.

Ralph Baer files for a US patent on August 21, 1969, that describes playing games on television and would later be a part of the Magnavox Odyssey.

On September 2, 1969, the first data moves from UCLA host to the IMP switch and The first U.S. bank ATM went into service at 9:00AM.

Charley Kline, a UCLA student, tries to send “login,” the first message over ARPANET at 10:30 PM on October 29, 1969. The system transmitted “l” and then “o” but then crashed making today the first day a message was sent over the Internet and the first network crash.

On August 29, 1969, the first network switch and the first piece of network equipment (called “IMP,” which is short for “Interface Message Processor”) is sent to UCLA.

Summer 1969 Unix was developed.

CompuServe, the first commercial online service, was established.

Introduction of the RS-232 (serial interface) standard by EIA (Electronic Industries Association), one of the oldest serial interfaces still in use today.

Gary Starkweather, while working with Xerox invents the laser printer.

Feature Presentation: Wake me up when the war is over.

 

20th Century: 1966

Jan. 14, 1966: The Soviet Union’s chief designer, Sergei Korolev, dies from complications stemming from routine surgery, leaving the Soviet space program without its most influential leader of the preceding 20 years.

Feb. 3, 1966: The unmanned Soviet spacecraft Luna 9 makes the first soft landing on the Moon.

ARPANET planning starts. In February 1966, Bob Taylor successfully lobbied ARPA’s Director Charles M. Herzfeld to fund a network project. Herzfeld redirected funds in the amount of one million dollars from a ballistic missile defense program to Taylor’s budget. Taylor hired Larry Roberts as a program manager in the ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office in January 1967 to work on the ARPANET.

March 1, 1966: The Soviet Union’s Venera 3 probe becomes the first spacecraft to land on the planet Venus, but its communications system failed before data could be returned.

March 16, 1966: Gemini 8 launches on a Titan 2 rocket and later docks with a previously launched Agena rocket — the first docking between two orbiting spacecraft.

The Agena Target Docking Vehicle seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Gemini adapter of the Agena is approximately two feet from the nose of the spacecraft (lower left). Crewmen for the Gemini-8 mission were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot. – NASA / Public domain

April 3, 1966: The Soviet Luna 10 space probe enters lunar orbit, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.

June 2, 1966: Surveyor 1, a lunar lander, performs the first successful U.S. soft landing on the Moon.

US President Lyndon Johnson signed the Freedom of Information Act into law on July 4, 1966. Freedom of information laws allows access by the general public to data held by national governments. The emergence of freedom of information legislation was a response to increasing dissatisfaction with the secrecy surrounding government policy development and decision making. They establish a “right-to-know” legal process by which requests may be made for government-held information, to be received freely or at minimal cost, barring standard exceptions. Also, variously referred to as open records, or sunshine laws (in the United States), governments are typically bound by a duty to publish and promote openness. In many countries, there are constitutional guarantees for the right of access to information, but these are usually unused if specific support legislation does not exist.

The original Star Trek was shown for the first time on United States NBC on September 8, 1966.

The first broadcast of Batman (the live-action TV series), The Monkees, Dark Shadows, Ultra Series, That Girl, Cathy Come Home, and Mission: Impossible.

Joseph Weizenbaum of MIT wrote a program called Eliza that made the computer act as a psychotherapist in 1966.

Top Film of 1966: A Man For All Seasons

 

If you have seen this film lets start a discussion

 

My choice for the top song of 1966 (because the others suck): #10 – The Mamas & The Pappas – California Dreamin’