20th Century: 1970

The Unix time, aka Epoch time, is set to start on January 1, 1970.

The Network Control Program (NCP) provided the middle layers of the protocol stack running on host computers of the ARPANET, the predecessor to the modern Internet.

NCP preceded the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport layer protocol used during the early ARPANET. NCP was a simplex protocol that utilized two port addresses, establishing two connections for two-way communications. An odd and an even port were reserved for each application layer application or protocol. The standardization of TCP and UDP reduced the need for the use of two simplex ports for each application down to one duplex port. Stephen D. Crocker, then a graduate student at UCLA, formed and led the Network Working Group (NWG) and specifically led the development of NCP. Other participants in the NWG developed application-level protocols such as TELNET, FTP, SMTP, among others.

Intel released its first commercially available DRAM, the Intel 1103 in October 1970. Capable of storing 1024 bytes or 1 KB of memory.

The Intel 4004, developed in 1970, is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. It was the first commercially produced microprocessor and the first in a long line of Intel CPUs.

Intel 4004 CPU – Thomas Nguyen / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)

The first dot-matrix impact printer was developed by Centronics in 1970.

IBM introduced the System/370 that included the use of Virtual Memory and utilized memory chips instead of magnetic core technology.

Douglas Engelbart got a patent for the first computer mouse on November 17, 1970.

SRI_Computer_Mouse
SRI International / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

Philips introduced the VCR in 1970.

Henry Edward Roberts establishes Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) in 1970.

Western Digital was founded.

1970: The first broadcast of The Mary Tyler Moore Show, The Odd Couple, Monday Night Football and All My Children; Advert Smash Martians; PBS is launched.

Apollo 13: “Houston, We’ve Got A Problem.”

This video contains historical footage of the flight of Apollo-13, the fifth Lunar Mission, and the third spacecraft that was to land on the Moon. Apollo-13’s launch date was April 11, 1970. On the 13th of April, after docking with the Lunar Module, the astronauts, Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swigert, discovered that their oxygen tanks had ruptured and ended up entering and returning to Earth in the Lunar Module instead of the Command Module. There is footage of inside module and Mission Control shots, personal commentary by the astronauts concerning the problems as they developed, national news footage and commentary, and a post-flight Presidential Address by President Richard Nixon.

 

20th Century: 1967

Development of programming language Pascal begun, continued in Switzerland from 1968 to 1971.

The floppy disk is invented at IBM by David Noble.

Ralph Baer created “Chase”, the first video game that was capable of being played on a television.

GPS becomes available for commercial use.

The LOGO programming language is developed and is later known as “turtle graphics,” a simplified interface useful for teaching children computers.

Jan. 27, 1967: All three astronauts for NASA’s Apollo 1 mission suffocate from smoke inhalation in a cabin fire during a launch pad test.

April 5, 1967: A review board delivers a damning report to NASA Administrator James Webb about problem areas in the Apollo spacecraft. The recommended modifications are completed by Oct. 9, 1968.

April 23, 1967: Soyuz 1 launches but the surface of a myriad of problems. The solar panels do not unfold, there are stability problems and the parachute fails to open on descent causing the death of Soviet cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov.

On November 9, 1967, Apollo 4, the first test flight of the Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle, was launched from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39. This was an unmanned test flight intended to prove that the complex Saturn V rocket could perform its requirements. All three stages separated successfully and their engines performed as planned. The third stage also restarted in orbit, which was a requirement for lunar missions. At the end of the flight, the unmanned Apollo spacecraft reentered and proved that it could survive the intense heat generated during a high-speed return from the moon.

Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle

The first broadcast of The Carol Burnett Show, The Prisoner, The Flying Nun, Speed Racer, The Phil Donahue Show, and Ambassador Magma; Adverts: Birds Eye’s Captain Birdseye and Beanz Meanz Heinz; PAL and SECAM color standards introduced in Europe, with BBC2 making their first color broadcasts.

1967 Stuff:

Jimi Hendrix Live in Monterey

Protests Galore!

Feature Presentation: Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women (Soviet Film – English dub)

 

 

20th Century: 1964

Computers built between 1964 and 1972 are often regarded as “third-generation” computers; they are based on the first integrated circuits – creating even smaller machines. Typical of such devices were the HP 2116A and Data General Nova.

Data General  Nova 1964 – Jeff Keyzer from Austin, TX, USA / CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)

Launch of IBM System/360. The first series of compatible computers, reversing and stopping the evolution of separate “business” and “scientific” machine architectures; all models used the same basic instruction set architecture and register sizes, in theory allowing programs to be migrated to more or less powerful models as needs changed.

IBM System 360 1964 – Arnold Reinhold / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

Project MAC began at MIT by J.C.R. Licklider, who would become famous for groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation.

April 8, 1964: Gemini 1, a two-seat spacecraft system, launches in an uncrewed flight.

April 1964: Battlecrypt is born.

A mainframe interactive fiction adventure game from 1977:

Unscramble: okrz

Protected Area

This content is password-protected. Ordinarily, the previous posts will give you a clue.

1 May 1964: Programming language BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) developed at Dartmouth College, USA, by Thomas E. Kurtz and John George Kemeny.

“Our vision was that every student on campus should have access to a computer, and any faculty member should be able to use a computer in the classroom whenever appropriate. It was as simple as that.” – John George Kemeny’s reason for developing BASIC.


10 PRINT "HELLO FOO"
20 PRINT 2 + 2

July 28, 1964: Ranger 7 launches and is the Ranger series’ first success, taking photographs of the moon until it crashes into its surface four days later.

DEC PDP-8 Mini Computer. The first minicomputer, built by Digital Equipment (DEC). It cost US$18,500.

Oct. 12, 1964: The Soviet Union launches Voskhod 1, a modified Vostok orbiter with a three-person crew.

The first broadcast of Gilligan’s Island, The Munsters, Bewitched, The Man from U.N.C.L.E, The Addams Family, Top of the Pops, Match of the Day, Jeopardy!, Jonny Quest, and the Up series; The Beatles appear on The Ed Sullivan Show.

Top Film of 1964:

My_fair_lady_poster
Anyone who loves musicals should see this film. Iconic!

Top Song of 1964: Meh…

20th Century: 1962

Steve Russell creates “SpaceWar!” and releases it in February 1962. This game is considered the first game intended for computers.

AT&T Introduces the Bell 103, the first Commercially Available modem for transmitting data over phone lines (at 300 baud).

Sharp was founded.

The United States launches Telstar 1, which enables the trans-Atlantic transmission of television signals.

July 28, 1962: The U.S.S.R launches its first successful spy satellite, designated Cosmos 7.

Aug. 27, 1962: Mariner 2 launches and eventually performs the first successful interplanetary flyby when it passes by Venus.

The first broadcast of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, The Beverly Hillbillies, Steptoe, and Son, The Jetsons, University Challenge, Elgar, That Was The Week That Was, first satellite television relayed by Telstar 1.

Top Film of 1962:

Incorporates artwork by Howard Terpning / Public domain

Top song of 1962:

The top song sucks, so, I picked the #2 song.

 

 

20th Century: 1961

Feb. 12, 1961: The Soviet Union launches Venera to Venus, but the probe stops responding after a week.

April 12, 1961: Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space with a 108-minute flight on Vostok 1 in which he completed one orbit.

GPN-2002-000168
Yuri Gagarin is on the bus on his way to the launch pad on the morning of April 12, 1961

May 5, 1961: Mercury Freedom 7 launches on a Redstone rocket for a 15-minute suborbital flight, making Alan Shepard the first American in space.

GPN-2000-001011
Astronaut Alan Shepard photographed in flight by a 16mm movie camera inside the Freedom 7 spacecraft.

May 25, 1961: In a speech before Congress, President John Kennedy announces that an American will land on the moon and be returned safely to Earth before the end of the decade.

Oct. 27, 1961: Saturn 1, the rocket for the initial Apollo missions, is tested for the first time.

IBM introduced the IBM 1301 disk storage unit on June 2, 1961, capable of storing 28 million characters, 2MB.

The first IBM Selectric typewriter was released on July 27, 1961, and introduced the typeball.

In September 1961, DEC donated the PDP-1 to MIT, where it was placed in the room next to its ancestor, the TX-0 computer, which was by then on indefinite loan from Lincoln Laboratory. PDP-1 helps solidify hackers’ ideology such as all information should be free.

 

Alex Handy (cropped by Arnold Reinhold) / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0) – PDP-1 & Steve Russel creator of Spacewar! – 1962

 

The first broadcast of The Avengers, The Defenders, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Morecambe, and Wise Show, Car 54, Where Are You?

Memorex was founded.

Top Film of 1961:

Designed by Joe Caroff –  Copyright © 1961 United Artists Corporation. / Public domain

Top Song of 1961:

Images of 1961:

 

The Incredible – Diana Rigg!, –  Public Domain view terms
File: Diana Rigg 1973.jpg
Created: Autumn 1973-00-00T00:00:00Z/9,P4241,Q40720568, as per NBC-TV release on back.

 

Feature  Presentation – Phantom Planet 1961

 

 

20th Century: 1959

Computers introduced between 1959 and 1964, often regarded as Second-generation computers, were based on discrete transistors and printed circuits – resulting in smaller, more powerful, and more reliable computers.

The Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) programming language first appeared.

Jan. 2, 1959, the U.S.S.R. launches Luna 1, which misses the moon but becomes the first artificial object to leave Earth orbit.

RIA Novosti archive, image #510848 / Alexander Mokletsov / CC-BY-SA 3.0 / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)

Jan. 12, 1959: NASA awards McDonnell Corp. the contract to manufacture the Mercury capsules.

Feb. 28, 1959: NASA launches Discover 1, the U.S. first spy satellite, but it is not until Aug. 11, 1960, launch of Discover 13 that film is recovered successfully.

May 28, 1959: The United States launches the first primates in space, Able and Baker, on a suborbital flight.

Aug. 7, 1959: NASA’s Explorer 6 launches and provides the first photographs of the Earth from space.

Sept. 12, 1959: The Soviet Union’s Luna 2 is launched, and two days later is intentionally crashed into the Moon.

1959 the first broadcast of The Twilight Zone, Rocky and His Friends, The Untouchables, Rawhide, and Bonanza (which runs for fourteen years).

Hitachi was founded in 1959.

The Top Film of 1959:

Reynold Brown / Public domain

Top Song of 1959: Actually, it was Jonnhy Horton’s Battle of New Orleans, but I don’t like it, so here is a much better one at number 2.

Battlecrypt’s feature presentation:

Public Domain

20th Century: 1958

William Higinbotham created the first video game named Tennis for Two. It is an early video game which was exhibited at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s annual public exhibition and considered by some definitions to be the earliest video game ever made. It was on display for three days when originally displayed and returned the next year with a bigger oscilloscope screen and the ability to adjust gravity.

The game simulates a game of tennis on an oscilloscope attached to a Donner Model 30 analog computer. Players used custom made aluminum controllers with knobs to angle their shots, and a button in order to hit a ball back and forth. Unlike other early tennis-like simulations such as Pong, the ball is affected by gravity and uses a side view. The ball can hit the net or go out of bounds.

Tennis for Two – Oct 15, 1958

The Russian satellite Sputnik burns up as it reentered Earth’s atmosphere on January 4, 1958.

On Jan. 31, 1958 Explorer 1, the first satellite with an onboard telemetry system, is launched by the United States into orbit aboard a Juno rocket and returns data from space.

The first integrated circuit was first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first IC was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.

On Oct. 7, 1958, NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan publicly announces NASA’s manned spaceflight program along with the formation of the Space Task Group, a panel of scientists and engineers from space-policy organizations absorbed by NASA. The announcement came just six days after NASA was founded. This new agency is also in response to Sputnik.

President Eisenhower’s Christmas address is the first voice transmission from a satellite.

The first broadcast of Blue Peter, Quatermass and the Pit, The Donna Reed Show, Moonlight Mask, and The Huckleberry Hound Show. The quiz show scandals wipe out the $64,000 Question and Twenty-One.

Top Film of 1958:

Copyright © 1958 Loew, Incorporated / Public domain

Top Song of 1958:

 

 

 

20th Century: 1956

Werner Buchholz (24 October 1922 – 11 July 2019) was a German-American computer scientist. After growing up in Europe, Buchholz moved to Canada and then to the United States of America. He worked for International Business Machines (IBM) in New York. In June 1956, he coined the term “byte” for a unit of digital information. In 1990, he was recognized as a computer pioneer by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

On September 13, 1956, the IBM 305 RAMAC was the first computer to be shipped with a hard drive. The drive contained 50 24-inch platters, was the size of two refrigerators, and weighed a ton. It could store only five megabytes of information, and each megabyte cost $10,000.

The programming language FORTRAN was introduced to the public on October 15, 1956.

Dr. Robert Adler of Zenith invented the first cordless TV remote control.

John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for their work on the transistor.

Wen Tsing Chow develops programmable read-only memory (PROM).

“I have travelled the length and breadth of this country and talked with the best people, and I can assure you that data processings is a fad that won’t last out the year.”
– The editor in charge of business books for Prentice-Hall, 1956

The first broadcast of The Edge of Night, As the World Turns, The Price Is Right, Playhouse 90, the Eurovision Song Contest, and Hancock’s Half Hour.

Top Film of 1956:

 

Top song of 1956:

 

 

20th Century: 1955

MIT introduced the Whirlwind machine on March 8, 1955, a revolutionary computer that was the first digital computer with magnetic core RAM.

The first broadcast of The Honeymooners, The Mickey Mouse Club, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Sunday Night at the London Palladium, The Benny Hill Show, The Sooty Show, Gunsmoke and Captain Kangaroo; ITV launches in the UK.

The first conference on artificial intelligence held at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire.

The Top film of 1955: “MARTY”

Copyright 1955 United Artists – Public Domain

 

Top Song of 1955: Bill Haley and the Comets – Rock Around the Clock

 

 

20th Century: 1954

There are about 100 operational computers in use worldwide.

IBM introduced its first calculating machine that used solid-state transistors instead of vacuum tubes.

Texas Instruments announces the start of commercial production of silicon transistors.

Commodore was founded.

The first broadcast of The Tonight Show, Father Knows Best, Disneyland and Lassie. NTSC video standard for color television is introduced, and National Educational Television (NET) is launched.

Top Film of 1954 – On the Waterfront:

 

Copyright Columbia Pictures – 1954 – Public Domain

Top song of 1954: Little Things Mean a Lot  – Kitty Kallen