The Horse in Motion & Three Little Kittens: 1878 – 1886

1878

Thomas Edison plays a recording of himself, reciting, “Mary had a Little Lamb.” He loved a good show!

Eadweard Muybridge uses a row of cameras with trip-wires to make a high-speed photographic analysis of a galloping horse. Each picture is taken in less than the two-thousandth part of a second, and they are taken in sufficiently rapid sequence (about 25 per second) that they constitute a brief real-time “movie” that can be viewed by using a device such as a zoetrope1, a photographic “first.”

The Horse in Motion

The first keyboard to have a Shift key is introduced on the Remington No. 2 typewriter introduced in 1878 that had one Shift key on the left side of the keyboard.

1879

David E. Hughes notices that sparks generated by an induction balance cause noise in an improved telephone microphone he was developing. He rigs up a portable version of his receiver and, carrying it down a street, finds the sparking is detected at some distance.

October 21, 1879

Thomas Edison demos an incandescent electric light bulb that lasts 13 1/2 hours.

January 27, 1880

Thomas Edison received patent #223,898 for the Electric Lamp.

The most popular song of 1880 was Funiculi Funicula.

1881

The most popular song in 1881 was Row Row Row Your Boat (1932 version).

1882

First thermal power stations began operation in London and New York.

Thomas Edison was awarded patent # 252,442 on January 17, 1882, for the carbon microphone used in telephones.

The most popular song of 1882 was Polly Wolly Doodle (All The Day).

1884

Herman Hollerith filed his first patent for The Hollerith Electric Tabulating System.

1885

The most popular song of 1885 was “Three Little Kittens.”

March 1, 1885

American Telegraph and Telephone company (AT&T) was incorporated.

1886

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz proves electromagnetic waves and that electricity is transmitted at the speed of light.

The most popular song for 1886 was “Semper Fidelis.”

 

Volta, Photography & Ohms, Oh My!: 1800 – 1835

1800

In 1800, Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile, allowing for a continuous current of electricity for experimentation. This became a source of a low-voltage current.

The most popular song of the 1800s was Good Morning to All (Happy Birthday To You).

1804

Dr. Salva presented at the Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona his first report devoted to “The Electricity applied to telegraphy.” Salva demonstrated the basis of electric telegraphy, anticipating the wireless telegraph and undersea cables.

1805

The punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Digital data can be used for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery.

1816

English inventor Francis Ronalds built the first working electric telegraph.

1820

Charles Xavier, Thomas, de Colmar invented the ‘Arithmometer,’ which, after thirty more years of development, became, in 1851, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator. An operator could perform long multiplications and divisions quickly and effectively by using a movable accumulator for the result. This machine was based on the earlier works of Pascal and Leibniz.

Hans Christian Ørsted discovers the relationship between electricity and magnetism in a very simple experiment. He demonstrates that a wire carrying a current was able to deflect a magnetized compass needle.

Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar creates the “Arithometer,” the first reliable, useful, and commercially successful calculating machine. The calculator could not only add but also subtract, multiply, and divide.

1821

German scientist Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered thermoelectricity.

1822

Charles Babbage designed his first mechanical computer, the first prototype of the decimal difference engine for tabulating polynomials.

1823

Baron Jons Jackob Berzelius discovered silicon (Si), which today is the basic component of an integrated circuit (IC).

1825

English physicist William Sturgeon developed the first electromagnet.

1826

Nicéphore Niépce makes what is now the earliest surviving photograph from nature, a landscape. It requires exposure in the camera that lasts at least eight hours and probably several days.

 

View_from_the_Window_at_Le_Gras,_Joseph_Nicéphore_Niépce
1826 – Nicéphore Niépce / Public domain

1827

German physicist Georg Ohm introduced the concept of electrical resistance.

1832

Semen Korsakov proposed the usage of punched cards for information storage and search.

On October 21, 1832, Pavel Schilling became the first to transmit signals between two telegraphs in different rooms of his apartment.

1835

Joseph Henry invented the electromechanical relay.

Henry Fox Talbot produces durable silver chloride camera negatives on paper and conceives the two-step negative-positive procedure used in most non-electronic photography up to the present.

 

The Guest Star – 1015 CE – 1613 CE

July 4, 1015 CE

Chinese astronomers observe the supernova in Taurus that formed the Crab Nebula.

Crab_Nebula
The Crab Nebula – NASA, ESA, J. Hester and A. Loll (Arizona State University) / Public domain

c.1200 CE

Chinese invent gun powder.

1365

The first four-suit deck of cards is created in Europe.

1440 CE

Johannes Gutenberg completes the Gutenberg press, the first printing press.

1600 CE

Willaim Gilbert lived during the time of Shakespeare and was one of Queen Elisabeth I doctors. Gilbert was interested in many things, such as magnetism, and felt that this mysterious force could possibly heal the body.

Gilbert was not like the other so-called philosophers of his time who would formulate a theory on so in so but felt it was beneath them to build or carry out experiments. Gilbert, however, got his hands dirty and carried out careful lab tests. He determined many substances could conduct and some that would not. He concluded that it wasn’t the heat from rubbing amber that attracted things like straw but a force that he called electricus.

1601 CE

The Microsoft Windows Epoch time is set to start on January 1, 1601.

Unix and POSIX measure time as the number of seconds that have passed since 1 January 1970 00:00:00 UT, a point in time known as the Unix epoch. The NT time epoch on Windows NT and later refers to the Windows NT system time in (10^-7)s intervals from 0h 1 January 1601.

1613 CE

The word “computer” was first recorded as being used in 1613 and was initially used to describe a person who performed calculations or computations. The definition of a computer remained the same until the end of the 19th century when it began referring to a machine that performed calculations.

Katherine_Johnson_1983
Katherine Johnson, a computer.

 

Unscramble this word: orkz

Hint: It’s a DOS game.

Remember it, you never know when you’ll need it.

Advancements in Mathmatics: 150 CE – 1000CE

190 CE

The first mention of the suanpan in print, (Chinese abacus) which was widely used until the invention of the modern calculator. 1

639 CE

Indian mathematician Brahmagupta was the first to describe the modern place-value numeral system.

820 CE

Persian mathematician, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, described the rudiments of modern algebra.

850 CE

Arab mathematician Al-Kindi (Alkindus), was a pioneer of cryptography. He gave the first known recorded explanation of cryptanalysis in A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. 2

1000 CE

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the Planisphere an early analog computer.


 

GOB
In 2002, a Gate of Battlecrypt appeared in the Kingdom of Ehb. Can you name the Game?

 

First Century – 1CE to 150 CE

Commander Vale, I’ve detected an unusual signal ahead.” “What kind of signal Dozer?” Vale answered unconcernedly.

A long silence…

Then Dozer’s face turned from perplexed to bone-chilling fear. “Commander! It’s a gate of Battlecrypt!

A long silence…

The Commander whispered to himself, “were §¢Я€ꟺ€ↁ.”


1 CE

Jesus is about 3 and John, his cousin, is about 3 and a half years old.

The Codex, the first form of the modern book, appears in the Roman Empire, and by the end of the century, the codex replaces the scroll.

32 CE

John the Baptizer’s death.

33 CE

Death of Jesus Christ on Friday, Nisan 14.

150 CE

The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 100 – c. 170). It is one of the most influential scientific texts of all time, it canonized a geocentric model of the Universe that was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria. It is also a vital source of information about ancient Greek astronomy.

 

Ptolemy's cataloque of stars_ Preface
A revision in English of Ptolemy’s catalog of stars.

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